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Bài báo - Tạp chí
In: Trần Thục (2015) Trang: 186-223
Tạp chí: Viet Nam Special Report on Managing the Risk of Extremes events and Disaster to Advance to Climate Change Adaptation

In the last two decades, the changes of weather and disaster risk are fluctuating more than in the past, in many parts of the world and Viet Nam. Risk of disaster and impacts of climate change may be not at the same level across regions in terms of danger, destruction, exposure to hazards and vulnerability therefore the response at local level may be different [5.1]. In addition to regional differences, there are many other factors affecting disaster risk management (DRM) and climate change adaptation and to limit or enhance the ability of localities to cope with extreme climate phenomena. Limiting inequalities and ensuring that communities have access to support and basic services before and after the disaster is a necessary condition to enhance the adaptive capacity of communities [5.5].
When a major natural disaster occurs, the destruction can surpass the resilience of local communities and cause heavy losses. In such cases, the deployment of emergency relief is very important and urgent, and can be seen as a strategy to cope with disaster in the short term [5.2.1]. Evacuating and moving people to safe places before a disaster occurs, as well as the relocation or migration of people are measures to cope with disaster risk in many localities/provinces. However, the study of migration in Viet Nam due to natural disasters or other reasons are limited due to lack of survey data and statistical sociological data [5.2.2].
Land use planning considering the risks of natural disasters is an important adaptation measure to minimize the damage in the future. Ecosystems conservation is principally to protect people against extreme climatic phenomena, however, can be trade-offs with other valuable benefits for humans [5.3.3].
DRM and climate change adaptation in Viet Nam are carried out in the two directions, from the national level down to the local level; and simultaneously, the local level (districts and communes) reflects and reports to the upper levels (provinces, regions, areas) to adjust strategies, thereby helping this two-way relationship to work most effectively [5.1]. Institutions related to disaster management in Viet Nam today, there is the Central Committee for Flood and Storm Prevention and Control (CCFSC) and the National Committee for Search and Rescue (NCSR). These are the units responsible for directing and operation, with the
functions of responding to and mitigation of disasters [5.4.1].
In order to strengthen the capacity of decision-making processes of local communities in terms of solutions to cope with natural hazards and other extreme weather phenomena that affect production in Viet Nam, the role of the People’s Committee and organizations (such as the Farmers' Association, Women's Union, Veterans and Youth associations) and other
social organizations at the commune/village levels play an important role as main partners in developing action plans [5.4.2]. These organizations are very important in sharing and helping each other in difficult situations [5.4.3] and in capacity building through training,teaching or reforming institutions in localities [5.4.5].
Along with the application of scientific and technical advances, local knowledge has a key part to play in the lives and production of local people. Promotion of local knowledge and combining that with scientific knowledge must be applied in an appropriate manner during the process of socio-economic and cultural development [5.4.4]. The initiatives that are based on the experiences and the best practices are also important. For example, the motto of “4-on-the-spot” has proven to be effective and meets the requirements of the local community [5.4.5].
In Viet Nam, DRM and climate change adaptation were and are integrated into national development strategies and plans. Community-based adaptation to climate change has been deployed in Viet Nam and is backed by the Government. Most provinces have developed their action plans to respond to climate change, which refer to the integration of climate
change into socio-economic development plans of the localities [5.6.1].

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